By John Peterson
Kharia, spoken in central-eastern India, is a member of the southern department of the Munda kinfolk, which kinds the western department of the Austro-Asiatic phylum, stretching from imperative India to Vietnam. the current examine offers the main huge description of Kharia so far and covers all significant parts of the grammar. Of specific curiosity within the number of Kharia defined right here, is that there's no facts for assuming the lifestyles of parts-of-speech, akin to noun, adjective and verb. really capabilities comparable to reference, amendment and predication are expressed through considered one of syntactic constructions, talked about right here as 'syntagmas'. the quantity can be of equivalent curiosity to normal linguists from the fields of typology, linguistic thought, areal linguistics, Munda linguistics in addition to South Asianists commonly.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Kharia (Brill's Studies in South and Southwest Asian Languages)
As Anderson (2001: 32) himself notes, the question of internal relationships within South Munda is still very much an unsettled issue. g. Pinnow (1960; 1963). For a brief description of Juang, see Matson (1964) and Patnaik (2008). 8 CHAP1ERONE Proto-Munda Proto-South Munda Proto-NorthMunda Proto-Koraput Munda ~ Proto-Gutob- Proto- Sora-Gorum 1\ Sora Gorum Remo-Gata1 ProtoCentral Munda ~I\ Gutob Remo Gata1 Kharia Juang Korwa etc. 1 Previous works The Kharia are one of the best studied Munda groups and studies on their language and culture date back to the 19th century.
Further research on this topic is necessary. 5 See note 1 above. 6 Note also that 1he number of speakers given in the 151h edition of 1he Ethnologue for all speakers in bo1h India and Nepal is only slightly higher 1han the number of speakers in India: 293,575. The number of speakers for India is given as the same in 1he 16th edition (Lewis, 2009), al1hough the figure for all countries is slightly higher: 293,580. INTRODUCTION 1HE KHARIA LANGUAGE 7 There is a growing movement to promote Kharia, both through various organizations as well as in the schools.
Although the pre-glottalized consonants are not phonemes but merely allophones of the corresponding, non-pre-glottalized plosives, writers generally prefer to represent these symbols distinctly by one of the means discussed below. 4. Vowel length, which is specified in Devanagari but which is not phonemic in Kharia, is generally written as it is pronounced, although this is seldomly consistently applied, and writers tend to oscillate between long and short vowels for the same words even in shorter texts.