By Petr Beckmann

The historical past of pi, says the writer, even though a small a part of the background of arithmetic, is however a replicate of the background of guy. Petr Beckmann holds up this replicate, giving the heritage of the days while pi made growth -- and in addition while it didn't, simply because technology was once being stifled by means of militarism or spiritual fanaticism.

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**Example text**

Let us regard (1) as the equation of the quadratrix in polar coordinates through P V(x 2 + ¢ arctan(y/x); y2), 43 THE EARLY GREEKS -00 + 17th century « 00 i i -x Hippias' quadratrix derived by analytical geometry. Hippias knew only the part in the interval - a < x < a. • the one shown in the preceding figure. After some manipulation, we have y = x cot( Tr x / 2 a ) , (3) and the figure above shows how the quadratrix has bloomed. Hippias and Dinostratus only saw the tip of the iceberg for - I' < X < r.

He judges both Antiphon's principle of exhaustion and Hippocrates' quadratures to be false, considering the refutation of Antiphon's principle beneath the notice of geometers, and never, of course, achieving a disproof of Hippocrates' quadrature of the lune, either. Aristotle, we are invaribly told, was "antiquity's most brilliant intellect," and the explanation of this weird assertion, I believe, is best summarized in Anatole France's words: The books that everybody admires are the books that nobody reads.

Even if the price was the loss of political independence by most of the races of the world. Simple, is it not? It appears we missed the benefits of pax germanica through Winston Churchill and similar warmongers, but all is not lost yet: We still have the chance of pax sovietica. BEFORE Rome became a corrupt empire, it was a corrupt republic. Across the Mediterranean, in what today is Tunisia, another city, Carthage, had risen and its dominions were expanding along the African coast and into Spain.