By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz
Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in actual existence, usually calls for the knowledge of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. according to decades of educating event, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a strong instrument to satisfy such demanding situations. they supply an easy advisor to the basics and purposes of acid-base diagrams, heading off complicated arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It bargains studying gains similar to boxed effects and a set of formulae.
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Additional info for Acid-Base Diagrams
Example: acid with log C H4 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 4, pKa3 ¼ 7 and pKa4 ¼ 12 32 3 Constructing pH-logci Diagrams Fig. 30 Plotting the lines of HB3À for pH < pKa1 , pKa1 < pH < pKa2 , pKa2 < pH < pKa3 , pKa3 < pH < pKa4 and pH > pKa4 . Example: acid with log C H4 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 4, pKa3 ¼ 7 and pKa4 ¼ 12 Fig. 31 Plotting the lines of B4À for pKa1 < pH < pKa2 , pKa2 < pH < pKa3 , pKa3 < pH < pKa4 and pH > pKa4. Example: acid with log C H4 B ¼ À1, pKa1 ¼ 2, pKa2 ¼ 4, pKa3 ¼ 7 and pKa4 ¼ 12 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for Graphical Estimation of the pH of Solutions and for the Derivation of Useful Simplified Equations For the derivation of equations that allow an approximative calculation of pH values, it is again necessary to refer to the reactions of a monobasic acid HB in water: HB þ H2 O !
A simplified equation can be easily derived when the amount balance (Eq. (18)) is taken in to account: 42 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . 2 Strong Acids in Low Concentration The considerations made in Sect. 1 are equally valid for such low concentrations that (i) the lines of HB are situated left of the H3 Oþ line, and (ii) the concentration of BÀ is still much larger than that of OHÀ at P1 and left of that point (cf. Fig. 36). Also in this case, the pH is approximately given by the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the BÀ and H3 Oþ lines, and it can be calculated with the simplified equation (77).
From this follows: Simplified equation for a very strong acid in very low concentration: cH3 Oþ % cOHÀ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Kw (71) Of course, the real pH should be – no matter how little – left to the pH-coordinate of the neutrality point (P1 in Fig. 34), as an acid solution can never have a neutral or basic pH. 40 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . 3 Very Weak Bases As an example, a solution of sodium chloride is chosen: the chloride anion is the very weak base corresponding to the very strong acid HCl.