By Sandra L. Singer
In the interval among the Civil struggle and international conflict I, German universities supplied North American ladies with possibilities in graduate education that weren't on hand to them at domestic. This education allowed girls to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those girls performed a key function in beginning up German universities to all ladies. Many dedicated the remainder of their lives to making larger study and graduate possibilities for different ladies, eternally altering the process better schooling in North America.
This examine offers money owed of the remarkable obstacles encountered via those first ladies scholars in Europe. It files their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and contains to boot the tales of the innovative males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to raised schooling. by no means ahead of has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been incorporated in a single quantity. This selection of tales from ladies throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the actually outstanding nature in their mixed contributions to better schooling and learn in North the USA and Europe.
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Extra info for Adventures Abroad. North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915
134 In fact, the trip abroad was not always as important for the technical and research skills gained as for the ticket it gave the student to membership among the professional elite. 135 In 1897 Anna Maude Bowen wrote while studying at Munich: "It seems to me an advantage for every American student, man or woman, to make his doctor's examination in America. "136 Jane B. "137 In 1888, when Mary Whiton Calkins decided to earn a graduate degree so that she could teach psychology and philosophy at Wellesley, she thought of studying abroad but was discouraged from doing so by her friends.
At Munich, North American women did make up 28 percent of the auditors during Winter Semester 1900/01, but that figure was an anomaly. In fact, from Summer Semester 1906 through Summer Semester 1914, North Americans never made up more than 1 percent of the total women enrolled as both auditors and matriculated students. Enrollment percentages were significantly higher at Gottingen. As in Berlin, North Americans made up a large percentage of the first women auditors. 6 percent. 3 percent and never rose again above 10 percent.
But women with training in Europe were still not hired as faculty members of regular medical schools, and had difficulty finding staff positions at general hospitals. Women with such extensive medical training were even rejected as medical students by regular medical colleges. Upon her return from Zurich, the physician Mary Sherwood applied to the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City and had her application rejected. This was twenty-five years after Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell had failed to get that same college to admit even a few women.