By Lew Freedman
When Jackie Robinson grew to become the 1st African American participant in significant league baseball in 1947, elbowing apart the league's guidelines of segregation that were inviolate for 60 years, he grew to become an emblem of chance and recognition for African American avid gamers all over the place. Robinson withstood discrimination to set up himself as a corridor of reputation participant, and to guide destiny generations of black gamers into the formerly all-white international of significant League Baseball. Written for college students and common readers alike, this biographical encyclopedia chronicles the heritage of African American baseball during the existence tales of the game's maximum gamers, the legends who performed an important position within the integration of the main league.
From Negro League stars Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson, to paint line shatterer Jackie Robinson, and those that them within the limelight, corresponding to Hank Aaron and Willie Mays, readers will learn the way the inclusion of African American avid gamers in significant League Baseball more advantageous the game and race family members within the usa in this serious interval in heritage.
Providing precise bills of every player's outstanding specialist achievements, this insightful reference describes how the wonderful abilities of African American gamers increased significant League Baseball endlessly. gains comprise a timeline of vital occasions, a variety of photos, and a bibliography of print and digital resources for additional reading.
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Additional info for African American Pioneers of Baseball: A Biographical Encyclopedia
We played all over the South. Of course riding was kind of rough. ” The bus only had one door, too, not particularly safe in case of emergency. “We’d need a can opener to come out of the bus. ” Fatigue was a real enemy, but pulling on a baseball uniform seemed to serve as a magical elixir. ”9 Any top-notch African American player enduring the tough conditions of the road, the low, few-hundred-dollar-a-month salaries of black baseball, and the snubs of the major leagues had to be especially mentally strong to cope.
But he was terribly saddened. “I heard the news on the radio and I couldn’t believe it,” Johnson said. ”25 LATER LIFE Johnson retired from playing baseball in 1938, nearly a decade before Jackie Robinson’s color-line breakthrough with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Johnson never came close to playing in the majors. Settling in Marshallton, Delaware, he operated a general store with his brother, drove a cab and a school bus, and coached semipro baseball and basketball. However, after African American players began infiltrating the majors in the wake of Robinson’s dramatic entrance with the Dodgers, the Philadelphia Athletics called and asked Johnson whether he would like to scout.
He did the dirty work for his pitchers. Although Johnson said he never performed his little operations on the ball in Negro Leagues play, only in exhibitions against white players, such a statement requires gullibility. Most of ball-manipulating practices weren’t banned in the Negro Leagues as they were in the majors. Johnson cheerfully provided a clinic on just how he made the baseball wiggle and swerve for his pitchers. 13 Johnson conceded that this was a form of cheating, but only one of many types of cheating that revolved around the type of stuff pitchers hurled, from mud balls to shine balls, to emery balls and spitters.