By Alexander of Aphrodisias
The observation of Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's earlier Analytics 1.8-22 is an important textual content, being the most historical statement with chapters within which Aristotle invented modal common sense - the common sense of propositions approximately what's beneficial or contingent (possible). the 1st quantity of Ian Mueller's translation coated chapters 1.8-13, and reached so far as the bankruptcy within which Aristotle mentioned the inspiration of contingency. during this, the second one quantity, the 'greatest' commentator, Alexander, concludes his dialogue of Aristotle's modal good judgment.
Aristotle additionally invented the syllogism, a method of argument related to premises and a end. Modal propositions should be deployed in syllogisms, and within the chapters integrated during this quantity Aristotle discusses all of the syllogisms containing a minimum of one contingent premiss.
In each one quantity, Ian Mueller presents a accomplished rationalization of Alexander's remark on modal good judgment as an entire.
Read or Download Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1.14-22 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) PDF
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Extra resources for Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1.14-22 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
It begins at 37a14: 34 Introduction It is not the case that if it is not contingent that B holds of no A, it is necessary that B holds of some A. For ‘It is not contingent that B holds of no A’ is said in two ways; it is said if B holds of some A by necessity and if it does not hold of some by necessity. (37a14-17) We take Aristotle to here be asserting (NCe) and not ( CeN). He goes on to assert a consequence of (NCe) and its analogue for (NCa): For if B does not hold of some A by necessity, it is not true to say that it is contingent that it does not hold of all, just as if B does hold of some A by necessity, it is not true to say that it is contingent that it holds of all.
Whatever Aristotle may have thought about (iii) and (iv), Alexander is uneasy with violations of them. Thus, when Aristotle takes CON (Animal i White) and CON(Animal o White) as true, Alexander says (171,30-172,5) that a ‘truer’ choice of terms would involve taking CON(White i Walking) and CON(White o Walking) to be true. This choice is equally problematic on the intuitive de re reading which lies behind Alexander’s acceptance of NEC(Animal i White) and NEC (Animal o White), but it allows him to preserve (iii) and (iv).
Then ( C N) NEC(YeX). But (EE-conversionn) NEC(XeY), contradicting CON(XaY) or CON(XiY). 17, 37a9-31) rejects the analogous argument for EE- conversionc: assume CON(YeX); then ( C ) NEC(YiX), so that (II-conversionn) NEC(XiY), contradicting CON(XeY). But Aristotle’s own argument for AI- and II-conversionc is very problematic: Since to be contingent is said in many ways (since we say that the necessary and the non-necessary and the possible are contingent) in the case of contingent propositions, the situation with respect to conversion will be the same in all cases of affirmative propositions.